Diary of a Young Girl

One of the glaring gaps in my preparation as a teacher of the Holocaust is that I never read Anne Frank, Diary of a Young Girl. Anne Frank’s diary is one of those touchstones of Holocaust education. During a recent trip to my home city in California, I looked for a copy of the diary in a used book shop. The owner helped me, but we couldn’t find one. She said it was required in the school district, and that students often bought copies from her, then sold them back, and then she sold them again.  I know this is one of the key texts in Holocaust literature, at least for younger readers.

What makes this blank spot in my self-education even more acute is that I have read many diaries of young girls—probably more than anyone who is not, like me, a historian of youth. So when I finally picked up a copy of the diary from my local library recently, I entered a work that felt familiar in many ways. Even though the dozens or scores of diaries I’ve used in my research were written by American girls and young women, Anne Frank took up many of the same themes.

As Joan Jacobs Brumberg has pointed out, diary keeping has clear class boundaries. There are vanishingly few diaries from working class girls. But as we enter the middle-class, adolescent children, especially girls, take up diary keeping and writing in huge numbers. And Anne, of course, came from a very comfortable middle-class family and background. In fact, the physical diary is a present for her on her birthday, and in the opening pages she writes about the gifts she received.  Her education and the family’s prosperity are markers of her favored status. She had both the leisure and the facility with language to become a successful diarist.

Like many girls, Anne seems to have had the goal of writing mainly about the good things in her life. She begins with an overview of her friendships at school, both the girls who are her friends and the boys who are her admirers. But when girls become consistent diary-keepers, documenting happy times falls into a tangential activity and the diary always becomes a trusted ally in other projects of youth.

The most obvious use of the diary is a source of reflection and solace regarding the wear and tear of adolescent life. Anne’s life has more of this than my American writers, of course. While she begins with scenes from school, her life suddenly narrows to the warehouse annex where she goes into hiding from the Nazi purge of Dutch Jews. Rather than using her writing time to carefully review and analyze her relations with peers, she has to fill it with the daily grind and tensions of life with five adults, her sister, and an older boy. As we emerge from a pandemic period that constrained the lives of most of us, we should have abundant sympathy for the people in the hidden rooms. They had one toilet among the eight of them, and a diet limited to mainly potatoes and a diminishing supply of whatever vegetables that could be purchased with black market ration cards. 

Yet, in spite of the grim circumstances, Anne handles these tensions with clear descriptions and humor.  After the adults decide that their hiding place can take in one more person, they invite Mr. Dussel, a dentist, who ends up sleeping in the room where Anne sleeps. At first he seems merely awkward. But soon enough, tensions mount:

Mr. Dussel, the man who was said to get along so well with children and to absolutely adore them, has turned out to be an old-fashioned disciplinarian and preacher of unbearably long sermons on manners. Since I have the singular pleasure (!) of sharing my far too narrow room with His Excellency, and since I’m generally considered to be the worst behaved of the three young people, it’s all I can do to avoid having the same old scolding and admonitions repeatedly flung at my head to and to pretend not to hear.

The passage is pitch perfect. Even through the anger and frustration, Anne shows a keen perception of the situation she finds herself in.

Again and again, Anne reports on her run-ins with adults and on her feeling of being the target of most of the criticism circulating in the attic rooms. Perhaps the most heartfelt of her laments concerns her relation with her mother, whom she feels scolds too easily and fails to give her the kind of affection she craves. One night, for instance, her mother comes to her at bedtime and offers to listen to her prayers rather than Anne’s father. Anne refuses and her mother leaves in tears. (April 2, 1943) Of all the adults, Anne feels most supported and closest to her father.

Diary-keeping serves not only as a repository of grievances but also as an aid in the project of self-definition. “Who am I?” “How am I distinct and special in my family and among my peers?” “How do I relate to the world around me?” “What am I becoming?” All these questions, in some form, run through the diaries of young people, and typically we see them working these out as they relate to other youth. Anne, of course, loses almost all of her access to peers after she goes into hiding. So we see her working through many of these issues in relation to the unsympathetic adults around her or in her own mind.

So, for instance, in the incident with her mother at bedtime, Anne receives a scolding from her father. But she also processes the incident in her own way. “It’s hard to tell the truth, and yet the truth is that she’s the one who’s rejected me. She’s the one whose tactless comments and cruel jokes about matters I don’t think are funny have made me insensitive to any sign of love on her part.” 

Adolescent girls seem to specialize in this kind of introspection. Anne considers what she prefers in her studies (history) and what she struggles with (algebra). She speculates on what she can do out of hiding, what she will become in life. She hopes to be a writer, and already in the Annex she begins writing short stories and fairy tales. She is pointedly self aware, even of her self awareness. “I have one outstanding character trait… I have a great deal of self-knowledge. In everything I do, I can watch myself as if I were a stranger.”  (July 15, 1944)

We have the benefit of this awareness, this self observation. This comes especially into play as Anne grows closer to the older boy, Peter, who is the son of the other couple in hiding. From about the midpoint of the book onward, Peter plays a larger and larger role in her life. We see Anne relaxing with him and gaining a better sense of balance in what is at best a difficult life. Slowly, the two fall in love. They share a first kiss. They discuss sex, though more its anatomy than its possibility. This romantic connection seems almost inevitable. We know proximity is one of the most important variables in who people fall in love with. And not only are Anne and Peter close in physical space day after day—they also have no real alternatives. 

[Of course, Peter is about the same age as Margot, Anne’s sister. But Margot, oddly, is the least rounded of the characters in Anne’s diary. They have a few exchanges of sisterly affection and recognition, but generally Anne says little of Margot except that she is the exemplary child.]

All of this happens in the shadow of what we know about the world outside the hiding place. While news reports play an important role in the discussions in the Annex, these never become the principal topic of Anne’s work. She worries about friends she knows could not go into hiding. She wonders about the treatment of Jews in the world, and whether this will change after the war. But, for most of these pages, Anne remains a young girl, dealing with her need to become a distinctive individual. Because we know that the diary ends when Anne and the others are arrested, we can never treat this text as lightly as we would if she had grown up in the Bronx. The diary is what we still have of Anne, her self reflected in her ideas and frustrations and aspirations. 

Brumberg, Joan Jacobs. The Body Project : An Intimate History of American Girls. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. 

EYÜPOĞLU, Sevim. “Proximity and the mere exposure effect in social psychology.” Neuroscience: Academic and Business Solutions, July 13, 2019. https://www.neuroscience.org.uk/proximity-mere-exposure-effect-social-psychology/. [This provides a nice, short review of the literature on proximity in human relations. It then descends into some evolutionary psychology-speak which you should feel free to ignore.]

Frank, Anne, Otto Frank, and Mirjam Pressler. The Diary of a Young Girl. Definitive ed. London: Penguin, 1997.

Spurlock, John C., and Cynthia A. Magistro. New and Improved: The Transformation of American Women’s Emotional Culture. New York: NYU, 1998.

Sexual liberalization

One of my challenges in discussing my work leading to the writing of Youth and Sexuality in the Twentieth-Century United States has always been the confusion even well-educated people experience when I talk about sex and history. The average heterosexual on the street usually assumes that sex has no history, that it pretty much operates the same way in all times and places. True, sex acts have only a narrow range of possibilities–there are far fewer sex manuals than cookbooks in the world. But a moment’s reflection (or perhaps a look into Time magazine for pictures of Afghan women in burkhas or a National Geographic spread on Carnivale in Rio) should quickly consign the no-change notion to the list of intellectual Darwin awards.

Someone who thinks about sex as one element of larger social and cultural systems may arrive at some version of “sexual liberalization.” In this view, the 20th century begins in Victorian repression and then progressively, continuously, steadily becomes less repressed and more open to choice in sexual matters. You can see this idea demonstrated graphically if in the chart provided here.  Sexual choice has been aided and abetted by the expanding technology of birth control and abortion, by the growth of work opportunities for women, and the proliferation of divorce. The term works well whether you are a social conservative, who sees the liberalization of anything as bad, or socially liberal. But even someone who believes that decisions about sex and commitment should be made in a free market of desire and advantage will also agree that problems will arise if liberalization unravels all social constraints.

Percentage of 19 year old females who have had sexual experience.

Percentage of 19 year old females who have had sexual experience.

Liberalization provides an intuitively complete explanation for sexual change. Anyone who, as a teenager, argued with parents or other dim adults about his or her apparel/piercings/music/politics/hairstyle or choice of companions will know that prior generations carry such backward, pernicious, and repressive ideas about life (and especially sex) that it should amaze us that the genus still has a species to go with it. But even more compelling for adult members of the liberalization school is that almost any two-point measure irrefutably proves the theory. Compare 1910 to 1920, or 1930 to 1980 or 1990 to 2000 and you find that a) boys and girls are having sex as teenagers more frequently; b) that the average age for first intercourse has declined markedly (17 for white males, 18 for white females in the mid-1990s); c) more people use birth control and have abortions; d) more young women have children outside marriage; e) sexual minorities are more visible and have greater freedom to date and mate with the people they find attractive. In fact, the recent findings of the Alan Guttmacher Institute, that teenagers who take chastity oaths end up having sex as frequently as non-oath-taking teens, provides a perfect example of liberalization. Not only are lots of teenagers having sex—what is more compelling is the assumption, even among those who support and promote chastity, is that teenagers will be the ones who make decisions about whether they have sex or not. At the turn of the century, almost no teenager would have been viewed as capable of that decision, and even the notion of decision-making in sexual matters would have seemed suspicious.

Pick at any strand of the liberalization idea, however, and the whole theory starts to unravel. Pre-marital intercourse always acts as a leading indicator in the free market theory of sexuality. Clearly, more people have sex before they marry these days. Yet, most men had sex before marriage through most of the 20th century, and the rates for women (even white middle-class women) increased very rapidly. In your mother’s generation, and probably in your grandmother’s generation, at least half of women had carnal knowledge before marriage. Of course, all this knowledge existed within a well-accepted system (even though it didn’t accord with public morality) in which women generally gave sexual favors to men they expected to marry, and usually they did marry them. Men, you will be amazed to learn, generally assumed that they had a right to greater latitude in pre-marital sexual partners. The major change in this system began in the early 1970s as more women had sex with men they did not plan to marry. Even this change has not gone in only one direction. After a rise through the mid-1980s, percentages of women choosing to have sex outside marriage began to decline. For African-American women, those declines (albeit from a higher percentage) have been more dramatic

Youth and Sexuality in the Twentieth-Century United States

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When did the sexual revolution happen? Most Americans would probably say the 1960s. In reality, young couples were changing the rules of public and private life for decades before. By the early years of the twentieth century, teenagers were increasingly free of adult supervision, and taking control of their sexuality in many ways. Dating, going steady, necking, petting, and cohabiting all provoked adult hand-wringing and advice, most of it ignored. By the time the media began announcing the arrival of a ‘sexual revolution,’ it had been going on for half a century.

Youth and Sexuality in the Twentieth-Century United States tells this story with fascinating revelations from both personal writings and scientific sex research. John C. Spurlock follows the major changes in the sex lives of American youth across the entire century, considering how dramatic revolutions in the culture of sex affected not only heterosexual relationships, but also gay and lesbian youth, and same-sex friendships. The dark side of sex is also covered, with discussion of the painful realities of sexual violence and coercion in the lives of many young people. Full of details from first-person accounts, this lively and accessible history is essential for anyone interested in American youth and sexuality.

John C. Spurlock is Professor of History at Seton Hill University in Greensburg, Pennsylvania. He is the author of New and Improved: The Transformation of American Women’s Emotional Culture, and Free Love: Marriage and Middle-Class Radicalism in America, 1825-1860.